5G, 6G, and Beyond: Recent advances and future challenges

Fatima Salahdine, Tao Han, Ning Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


With the high demand for advanced services and the increase in the number of connected devices, current wireless communication systems are required to expand to meet the users’ needs in terms of quality of service, throughput, latency, connectivity, and security. 5G, 6G, and Beyond (xG) aim at bringing new radical changes to shake the wireless communication networks where everything will be fully connected fulfilling the requirements of ubiquitous connectivity over the wireless networks. This rapid revolution will transform the world of communication with more intelligent and sophisticated services and devices leading to new technologies operating over very high frequencies and broader bands. To achieve the objectives of the xG networks, several key technology enablers need to be performed, including massive MIMO, software-defined networking, network function virtualization, vehicular to everything, mobile edge computing, network slicing, terahertz, visible light communication, virtualization of the network infrastructure, and intelligent communication environment. In this paper, we investigated the recent advancements in the 5G/6G and Beyond systems. We highlighted and analyzed their different key technology enablers and use cases. We also discussed potential issues and future challenges facing the new wireless networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)525-549
Number of pages25
JournalAnnales des Telecommunications/Annals of Telecommunications
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • 5G
  • 6G
  • Attacks
  • Blockchain
  • Cell-free MIMO. Millimeter waves
  • D2D
  • Energy efficiency
  • Full duplex
  • Heterogeneous networks
  • Internet of Nano things
  • Internet of me
  • Internet of things
  • M2M
  • MEC
  • Machine learning
  • Massive MIMO
  • NFV
  • Network slicing
  • Privacy
  • Resource orchestration
  • SDN
  • Security
  • Spectrum sharing
  • Tactile internet
  • V2X


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