A Brief Taxonomy of Hybrid Intelligence

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As artificial intelligence becomes ubiquitous in our lives, so do the opportunities to combine machine and human intelligence to obtain more accurate and more resilient prediction models across a wide range of domains. Hybrid intelligence can be designed in many ways, depending on the role of the human and the algorithm in the hybrid system. This paper offers a brief taxonomy of hybrid intelligence, which describes possible relationships between human and machine intelligence for robust forecasting. In this taxonomy, biological intelligence represents one axis of variation, going from individual intelligence (one individual in isolation) to collective intelligence (several connected individuals). The second axis of variation represents increasingly sophisticated algorithms that can take into account more aspects of the forecasting system, from information to task to human problem-solvers. The novelty of the paper lies in the interpretation of recent studies in hybrid intelligence as precursors of a set of algorithms that are expected to be more prominent in the future. These algorithms promise to increase hybrid system’s resilience across a wide range of human errors and biases thanks to greater human-machine understanding. This work ends with a short overview for future research in this field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)633-643
Number of pages11
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Decision Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


  • AI
  • collective intelligence
  • forecasting
  • hybrid intelligence


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