A Distributed Dynamic Programming-Based Solution for Load Management in Smart Grids

Wei Zhang, Yinliang Xu, Sisi Li, Meng Chu Zhou, Wenxin Liu, Ying Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Load management (LM) is being recognized as an important option for active user participation in the energy market. Traditional LM methods usually require a centralized powerful control center and a two-way communication network between the system operators and energy end-users. The increasing user participation in smart grids may limit their applications. In this paper, a distributed solution for LM in emerging smart grids is proposed. The LM problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem aiming at maximizing the overall utility of users while meeting the requirement for load reduction requested by the system operator, and is solved by using a distributed dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm. The algorithm is implemented via a distributed framework and thus can deliver a highly desired distributed solution. It avoids the required use of a centralized coordinator or control center, and can achieve satisfactory outcomes for LM. Simulation results with various test systems demonstrate its effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)402-413
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Distributed algorithm
  • dynamic programming (DP)
  • load management (LM)
  • smart grids


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