A global blockchain for recording high rates of COVID-19 vaccinations

Jorge Medina, Roberto Rojas-Cessa, Ziqian Dong, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Blockchain has been recently proposed to securely record vaccinations against COVID-19 and manage their verification. However, existing solutions may not fully meet the requirements of a global vaccination management system. These requirements include the scalability required to support a global vaccination campaign, like one against COVID-19, and the capability to facilitate the interoperation between the independent health administrations of different countries. Moreover, access to global statistics can help to control securing community health and provide continuity of care for individuals during a pandemic. In this paper, we propose GEOS, a blockchain-based vaccination management system designed to address the challenges faced by the global vaccination campaign against COVID-19. GEOS offers interoperability between vaccination information systems at both domestic and international levels, supporting high vaccination rates and extensive coverage for the global population. To provide those features, GEOS uses a two-layer blockchain architecture, a simplified byzantine-tolerant consensus algorithm, and the Boneh–Lynn–Shacham signature scheme. We analyze the scalability of GEOS by examining transaction rate and confirmation times, considering factors such as the number of validators, communication overhead, and block size within the blockchain network. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of GEOS in managing COVID-19 vaccination records and statistical data for 236 countries, encompassing crucial information such as daily vaccination rates for highly populous nations and the global vaccination demand, as identified by the World Health Organization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107074
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


  • Block commitment time
  • Blockchain
  • COVID-19
  • Electronic vaccination records
  • Global vaccination
  • Healthcare blockchain
  • High transaction throughput
  • Peer-to-peer networks
  • Two-layered blockchain


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