Introduction: Inverted papilloma (IP) is a sinonasal tumor with a well-known potential for malignant transformation. The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in its pathogenesis has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the virome associated with IP, with progression to carcinoma in situ (CIS), and invasive carcinoma. Methods: To determine the HPV-specific types, a metagenomics assay that contains 62,886 probes targeting viral genomes in a microarray format was used. The platform screens DNA and RNA from fixed tissues from eight controls, 16 IP without dysplasia, five IP with CIS, and 13 IP-associated squamous cell carcinoma (IPSCC). Paired with next-generation sequencing, 48 types of HPV with 857 region-specific probes were interrogated against the tumors. Results: The prevalence of HPV-16 was 14%, 42%, 70%, and 73% in control tissue, IP without dysplasia, IP with CIS, and IPSCC, respectively. The prevalence of HPV-18 had a similar progressive increase in prevalence, with 14%, 27%, 67%, and 74%, respectively. The assay allowed region-specific analysis, which identified the only oncogenic HPV-18 E6 to be statistically significant when compared with control tissue. The prevalence of HPV-18 E6 was 0% in control tissue, 25% in IP without dysplasia, 60% in IP with CIS, and 77% in IPSCC. Conclusions: There are over 200 HPV types that infect human epithelial cells, of which only a few are known to be high-risk. Our study demonstrated a trend of increasing prevalence of HPV-18 E6 that correlated with histologic severity, which is novel and supports a potential role for HPV in the pathogenesis of IP.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- human papillomavirus
- inverted papilloma
- squamous cell carcinoma