TY - JOUR

T1 - A model for the electric field-driven flow and deformation of a drop or vesicle in strong electrolyte solutions

AU - Ma, Manman

AU - Booty, Michael R.

AU - Siegel, Michael

N1 - Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from National Science Foundation grants DMS-1412789 and DMS-1909407.
Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press.

PY - 2022/7/25

Y1 - 2022/7/25

N2 - A model is constructed to describe the flow field and arbitrary deformation of a drop or vesicle that contains and is embedded in an electrolyte solution, where the flow and deformation are caused by an applied electric field. The applied field produces an electrokinetic flow, which is set up on the charge-up time scale, where is the Debye screening length, is the inclusion length scale and is an ion diffusion constant. The model is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations. These are reduced or simplified by forming the limit of strong electrolytes, for which dissolved salts are completely ionised in solution, together with the limit of thin Debye layers. Debye layers of opposite polarity form on either side of the drop interface or vesicle membrane, together forming an electrical double layer. Two formulations of the model are given. One utilises an integral equation for the velocity field on the interface or membrane surface together with a pair of integral equations for the electrostatic potential on the outer faces of the double layer. The other utilises a form of the stress-balance boundary condition that incorporates the double layer structure into relations between the dependent variables on the layers' outer faces. This constitutes an interfacial boundary condition that drives an otherwise unforced Stokes flow outside the double layer. For both formulations relations derived from the transport of ions in each Debye layer give additional boundary conditions for the potential and ion concentrations outside the double layer.

AB - A model is constructed to describe the flow field and arbitrary deformation of a drop or vesicle that contains and is embedded in an electrolyte solution, where the flow and deformation are caused by an applied electric field. The applied field produces an electrokinetic flow, which is set up on the charge-up time scale, where is the Debye screening length, is the inclusion length scale and is an ion diffusion constant. The model is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations. These are reduced or simplified by forming the limit of strong electrolytes, for which dissolved salts are completely ionised in solution, together with the limit of thin Debye layers. Debye layers of opposite polarity form on either side of the drop interface or vesicle membrane, together forming an electrical double layer. Two formulations of the model are given. One utilises an integral equation for the velocity field on the interface or membrane surface together with a pair of integral equations for the electrostatic potential on the outer faces of the double layer. The other utilises a form of the stress-balance boundary condition that incorporates the double layer structure into relations between the dependent variables on the layers' outer faces. This constitutes an interfacial boundary condition that drives an otherwise unforced Stokes flow outside the double layer. For both formulations relations derived from the transport of ions in each Debye layer give additional boundary conditions for the potential and ion concentrations outside the double layer.

KW - electrohydrodynamic effects

KW - electrokinetic flows

KW - membranes

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U2 - 10.1017/jfm.2022.469

DO - 10.1017/jfm.2022.469

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85133418440

VL - 943

JO - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

SN - 0022-1120

M1 - A47

ER -