A quasi-3D model of the whole lung: Airway extension to the tracheobronchial limit using the constrained constructive optimization and alveolar modeling, using a sac-trumpet model

Ravishekar Ravi Kannan, Narender Singh, Andrzej Przekwas, Xianlian Alex Zhou, Ross Walenga, Andrew Babiskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Existing computational models used for simulating the flow and species transport in the human airways are zero-dimensional (0D) compartmental, three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD), or the recently developed quasi-3D (Q3D) models. Unlike compartmental models, the full CFD and Q3D models are physiologically and anatomically consistent in the mouth and the upper airways, since the starting point of these models is the mouth-lung surface geometry, typically created from computed tomography (CT) scans. However, the current resolution of CT scans limits the airway detection between the 3rd-4th and 7th-9th generations. Consequently, CFD and the Q3D models developed using these scans are generally limited to these generations. In this study, we developed a method to extend the conducting airways from the end of the truncated Q3D lung to the tracheobronchial (TB) limit. We grew the lung generations within the closed lung lobes using the modified constrained constructive optimization, creating an aerodynamically optimized network aiming to produce equal pressure at the distal ends of the terminal segments. This resulted in a TB volume and lateral area of ∼165 cc and ∼2000 cm2, respectively. We created a "sac-trumpet"model at each of the TB outlets to represent the alveoli. The volumes of the airways and the individual alveolar generations match the anatomical values by design: with the functional residual capacity at 2611 cc. Lateral surface areas were scaled to match the physiological values. These generated Q3D whole lung models can be efficiently used for conducting multiple breathing cycles of drug transport and deposition simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-704
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Computational Design and Engineering
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Mathematics

Keywords

  • CFD
  • constrained constructive optimization
  • Q3D lung airway
  • quasi-3D (Q3D)
  • sac-trumpet, CCO

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