Biofuels have received considerable attention lately due to the scarcity of fossil-based energy and its adverse impact on the environment. Furthermore, the need for a consistent energy supply has led researchers and practitioners to investigate renewable sources such as biofuels and biomass. However, more investigation is needed, particularly for lignocellulosic (energy crops) biomass production and the biofuel supply chain. Various studies have been conducted to ensure the feasibility of biofuel and biomass production while maximizing its benefits, and to gain insights about energy generation from biomass-based sources. In this paper, we provide a literature review of the models developed for supply chain and production of lignocellulosic biofuel and biomass from energy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. We also distinguish studies in terms of research area and methodology. Additionally, we compare three studies in detail with respect to the considered methodology, objective function, constraints, decisions taken, and application area. Finally, we provide a discussion of the areas where there is a research gap, and we highlight research needs in the biomass and biofuel supply chain area.