A robust protocol for proving ownership of multimedia content

Mahalingam Ramkumar, Ali N. Akansu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


We explore the problem of proving ownership or origin of multimedia content like image/video or audio signals through watermarking. The need for watermarking arises out of the insufficiency of present copyright laws for claiming ownership of digital content. Watermarking schemes however, are threatened by counterfeit attacks, which primarily use the freedom available in choice of signature or choice of the watermarking method. A restrictive protocol for watermarking could go a long way in rendering counterfeit attacks extremely difficult. We suggest a comprehensive protocol as an extension of the one suggested by Craver et al., that makes it possible for the true owner to claim ownership unambiguously, while making it extremely difficult for a pirate to do so.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)469-478
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Counterfeit attacks
  • Data hiding
  • Watermarking


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