Efficient monitoring and control of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has become an important public issue as the cost of electricity continues to grow and the quality requirements of processed water tightens. However, the development, deployment, and maintenance of highly efficient monitors and controllers for wastewater processing tanks are significantly challenging. Self-powered, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an ideal candidate for this application, since their deployment would have the least impact on the existing infrastructure. A novel wireless sensor network is presented in this paper that integrates microbial fuel cells (MFCs), field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs), and low-power networking protocols into the sensors to make them self-powered, highly flexible, and adaptive. MFCs convert chemicals in the waste water into electrical energy, while FPAAs provide a means of performing ultra-low-power, real-time, and adaptive processing of the sensor signals. This design achieves sustainable monitoring and control of wastewater treatment with minimal impact to existing infrastructure.