A SEM and X-ray study for investigation of solidified/stabilized arsenic-iron hydroxide sludge

Tanapon Phenrat, Taha F. Marhaba, Manaskorn Rachakornkij

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81 Scopus citations


Despite the fact that the solidification/stabilization of arsenic containing wastes with Portland cement and lime has an extensively documented history of use, the physical and chemical phenomena as a result of the interaction between arsenic and cement components have not been fully characterized. The study investigates the behavior of synthesized arsenic-iron hydroxide sludge, the by-product of arsenic removal by coagulation with ferric chloride, in solidified/stabilized matrices as well as its binding mechanisms by exploring the cementitious matrices in the micro-scale by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It was revealed that arsenic can be chemically fixed into cementitious environment of the solidified/stabilized matrices by three important immobilization mechanisms; sorption onto CSH surface, replacing SO42- of ettringite, and reaction with cement components to form calcium-arsenic compounds, the solubility limiting phases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-195
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Feb 14 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


  • Arsenic-iron hydroxide sludge
  • Immobilization mechanism
  • Microstructure
  • Solidification/stabilization


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