A single primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury in a rodent model causes cell-type dependent increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase isoforms in vulnerable brain regions

Kakulavarapu V. Rama Rao, Stephanie Iring, Daniel Younger, Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Raj K. Gupta, Namas Chandra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in soldiers on the battlefield and in training sites with long-term neurological and psychological pathologies. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated activation of oxidative stress pathways after blast injury, but their distribution among different brain regions and their impact on the pathogenesis of bTBI have not been explored. The present study examined the protein expression of two isoforms: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1, NOX2), corresponding superoxide production, a downstream event of NOX activation, and the extent of lipid peroxidation adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) to a range of proteins. Brain injury was evaluated 4 h after the shock-wave exposure, and immunofluorescence signal quantification was performed in different brain regions. Expression of NOX isoforms displayed a differential increase in various brain regions: in hippocampus and thalamus, there was the highest increase of NOX1, whereas in the frontal cortex, there was the highest increase of NOX2 expression. Cell-specific analysis of changes in NOX expression with respect to corresponding controls revealed that blast resulted in a higher increase of NOX1 and NOX 2 levels in neurons compared with astrocytes and microglia. Blast exposure also resulted in increased superoxide levels in different brain regions, and such changes were reflected in 4HNE protein adduct formation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that primary blast TBI induces upregulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms in different regions of the brain parenchyma and that neurons appear to be at higher risk for oxidative damage compared with other neural cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2077-2090
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume35
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

Keywords

  • 4-hydroxynonenal
  • NADPH oxidase
  • astrocytes
  • blast injury
  • microglia
  • neuron
  • oxidative stress
  • traumatic brain injury

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