A Survey of Wireless Soil Sensing Technologies

Yihan Xu, Mikhail Smirnov, Michael C. Kohler, Ziqian Dong, Reza K. Amineh, Fang Li, Roberto Rojas-Cessa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This survey provides an overview of recent advancements in wireless soil sensing technologies, including the sensors and communication systems used to manage and enhance soil health and crop production for sustainable agricultural practices. The surveyed technologies are categorized by the target sensing parameters, such as moisture, temperature, salinity, pH, nutrient concentration, pressure, and heavy metal content. Special focus is placed on the passive and semi-passive sensing principles for soil data collection, communication systems for transmitting the sensed data, and machine learning approaches for data processing and analysis to assist in informed decision-making in the realization of sustainable agriculture. By comparing existing technologies, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these sensing mechanisms, summarize existing challenges of the surveyed soil sensing systems, and identify future research directions that need attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12010-12038
Number of pages29
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


  • machine learning
  • moisture
  • nutrient
  • pressure
  • sensors
  • Soil sensing
  • survey
  • temperature
  • wireless communication


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