Achieving non-ambiguity of quantization based watermarking

Xiangui Kang, Yun Q. Shi, Jiwu Huang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


The ambiguity attack is to derive a valid watermark from a medium to defeat the ownership claim of the real owner. Most of the research suggests that it is difficult to design a provably secure non-ambiguity watermarking without a trusted third party. Recently, Li and Chang have provided a specific blind additive spread spectrum watermarking scheme as an example that is provably non-ambiguous. However, the proposed watermarking needs the length of watermark n>3.07 × 109 according to our analysis. In this paper, a framework for quantization based watermarking schemes and non-blind spread spectrum watermarking scheme to achieve non-ambiguity is proposed. As a result, many of the existent watermarking schemes can achieve provable non-invertibility via using this framework, and an non-ambiguity ownership verification protocol without a trusted third party may be constructed. We have obtained the close form solution of false positive rate for the underlying quantization based schemes and spread spectrum watermarking schemes (both blind and non-blind). The length of key of pseudo-random sequence generator (PRSG) is extended to m = c·n, the cardinality of the valid watermark set is extended to |W | = 2m = 2c·n, thus leading to more security to exhaustive searching attack than the Li and Chang's scheme, which has m = √n. In addition, the required length of watermark becomes much shorter than that required in the Li and Chang's scheme. At last, we propose a noninvertible and robust quantization-based watermarking scheme with the length of watermark being n=1024.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSecurity, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII - Proceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging
StatePublished - 2006
EventSecurity, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 16 2006Jan 19 2006

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherSecurity, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Digital right management
  • Non-ambiguity
  • Non-invertibility
  • Quatization
  • Watermarking


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