Introduction: Blast induced Traumatic brain injury (BI-TBI) is common among military personnels as well as war affected civilians. In the war zone, people can also encounter repeated exposure of blast wave, which may affect their cognition and metabolic alterations. Objective: In this study we assess the metabolic and histological changes in the hippocampus of rats at 24 h post injury. Method: Rats were divided into four groups: (i) Sham; (ii) Mild TBI (mi); (iii) Moderate TBI (mo); and (iv) Repetitive mild TBI (rm TBI) and then subjected to different intensities of blast exposure. Hippocampal tissues were collected after 24 h of injury for proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR spectroscopy) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results: The metabolic alterations were found in the hippocampal tissue samples and these alterations showed significant change in glutamate, N-Acetylaspartic acid (NAA), acetate, creatine, phosphoethanolamine (PE), ethanolamine and PC/choline concentrations in rmTBI rats only. IHC studies revealed that AH3 (Acetyl histone) positive cells were decreased in rm TBI tissue samples in comparison to other TBI groups and sham rats. This might reflect an epigenetic alteration due to repeated blast exposure at 24 h post injury. Additionally, astrogliosis was observed in miTBI and moTBI hippocampal tissue while no change was observed in rmTBI tissues. Conclusion: The present study reports altered acetylation in the presence of altered metabolism in hippocampal tissue of blast induced rmTBI at 24 h post injury. Mechanistic understanding of these intertwined processes may help in the development of better therapeutic pathways and agents for blast induced TBI in near future.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Acute injury
- Blast induced TBI