China and America are top producers of many agricultural commodities. Each is a large and diverse nation with a range of climates and agricultural systems. Many crops are grown in similar settings in each country, such as wheat in the Great Plains of America and North China Plain Corn is of greater importance in the U.S. while rice is a major crop in China. The diversity and level of capital investment in many forms of agriculture in particular in the State of California is unexcelled on earth. While the intensity of agriculture on the Lower Yangtze plain is unique. China also has unique agricultural regions such as the silk and tea industries and highly developed aquaculture. This chapter presents a wealth of information about each country’s agricultural capabilities and diversity as well as discussing some pressing issues related to agriculture such as erosion, pollution and obesity.