The pheromone trail laying and trail following behaviors of ants have proved to be an efficient mechanism to optimize path selection in natural as well as in artificial networks. Despite this efficiency, this mechanism is under-used in collective robotics because of the chemical nature of pheromones. In this paper we present a new experimental setup which allows to investigate with real robots the properties of a robotics systems using such behaviors. To validate our setup, we present the results of an experiment in which a group of 5 robots has to select between two identical alternatives a path linking two different areas. Moreover, a set of computer simulations provides a more complete exploration of the properties of this system. At last, experimental and simulation results lead us to interesting prediction that will be testable in our setup.