An adjustable-purpose image watermarking technique by particle swarm optimization

Frank Y. Shih, Xin Zhong, I. Cheng Chang, Shin’ichi Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Imperceptibility, security, capacity, and robustness are among many aspects of image watermarking design. An ideal watermarking system should embed a large amount of information perfectly securely, but with no visible degradation to the host image. Many researchers have geared efforts towards developing specific techniques for variant applications. In this paper, we propose an adjustable-purpose, reversible and fragile watermarking scheme for image watermarking by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In general, given any host image and watermark, our scheme can provide an optimal watermarking solution. First, the content of a host image is analyzed to extract significant regions of interest (ROIs) automatically. The remaining regions of non-interest (RONIs) are collated for embedding watermarks by different amounts of bits determined by PSO to achieve optimal watermarking. The parameters can be adjusted relying upon user’s watermarking purposes. Experimental results show that the proposed technique has accomplished higher capacity and higher PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio) watermarking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1623-1642
Number of pages20
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Media Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


  • Authentication
  • Data hiding
  • Image watermarking
  • PSO
  • ROI
  • SVD


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