An enhanced statistical approach to identifying photorealistic images

Patchara Sutthiwan, Jingyu Ye, Yun Q. Shi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

14 Scopus citations


Computer graphics identification has gained importance in digital era as it relates to image forgery detection and enhancement of high photorealistic rendering software. In this paper, statistical moments of 1-D and 2-D characteristic functions are employed to derive image features that can well capture the statistical differences between computer graphics and photographic images. YCbCr color system is selected because it has shown better performance in computer graphics classification than RGB color system and it has been adopted by the most popularly used JPEG images. Furthermore, only Y and Cb color channels are used in feature extraction due to our study showing features derived from Cb and Cr are so highly correlated that no need to use features extracted from both Cb and Cr components, which substantially reduces computational complexity. Concretely, in each selected color component, features are extracted from each image in both image pixel 2-D array and JPEG 2-D array (an 2-D array consisting of the magnitude of JPEG coefficients), their prediction-error 2-D arrays, and all of their three-level wavelet subbands, referred to as various 2-D arrays generated from a given image in this paper. The rationale behind using prediction-error image is to reduce the influence caused by image content. To generate image features from 1-D characteristic functions, the various 2-D arrays of a given image are the inputs, yielding 156 features in total. For the feature generated from 2-D characteristic functions, only JPEG 2-D array and its prediction-error 2-D array are the inputs, one-unit-apart 2-D histograms of the JPEG 2-D array along the horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions are utilized to generate 2-D characteristic functions, from which the marginal moments are generated to form 234 features. Together, the process then results in 390 features per color channel, and 780 features in total Finally, Boosting Feature Selection (BFS) is used to greatly reduce the dimensionality of features while boosts the machine learning based classification performance to fairly high.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDigital Watermarking - 8th International Workshop, IWDW 2009, Proceedings
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2009
Event8th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, IWDW 2009 - Guildford, United Kingdom
Duration: Aug 24 2009Aug 26 2009

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume5703 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other8th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, IWDW 2009
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


  • Boosting
  • Computer graphics classification
  • Moments of characteristic functions


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