An improved scheme for data hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC videos

Dawen Xu, Rangding Wang, Yun Q. Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Recently, a novel scheme to hide data into encrypted H.264/AVC videos using code-word substitution has been proposed by Xu et al. However, the statistical analysis of CAVLC code-words demonstrate that Xu et al.'s work does not fully exploit redundancy existing in CAVLC code-word for data embedding. In this paper, an improved version of Xu et al.'s data hiding method in encrypted H.264/AVC videos is proposed. Specifically, when suffixLength is equal to 1, data embedding is performed by paired code-word substitution. When suffixLength is greater than 2, not the single code-word substitution but the multiple-based notational system is adopted for data embedding. Experimental results have demonstrated that the improved method is indeed capable of providing a larger embedding capacity in comparison with Xu et al.'s method. Moreover, both encryption and data embedding can be accomplished without affecting the coding efficiency of H.264/AVC by keeping exactly the same bitrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-242
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Code-word pair
  • Code-word substitution
  • Context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC)
  • Data embedding capacity
  • Data extraction
  • Data hiding
  • Encrypted domain
  • H.264/AVC


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