Assessment of Blood and Semen Detection and DNA Collection from Swabs up to Three Months after Deposition on Five Different Cloth Materials

Francisco Medina-Paz, Brandon Kuba, Emily Kryvorutsky, Gabriela Roca, Sara C. Zapico

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Body fluid identification plays a crucial role in criminal investigations. Because of their presence in many cases, blood and semen are the most relevant body fluids in forensic sciences. Based on antigen–antibody reactions binding unique proteins for each body fluid, serological assays represent one of the most rapid and highly specific tests for blood and semen. Currently, few studies have assessed the factors affecting body fluid identification by applying these assays. This work aimed to study the effect of different fabrics from clothes and time since deposition on identification through immunochromatographic tests for blood and semen, DNA isolation, and STR profiling from these samples. Body fluids were deposited on black- and white-dyed denim and cotton fabrics, and on leather. Afterward, blood and semen were sampled at 1 day, 30 days, and 90 days after deposition and identified by using the SERATEC® HemDirect Hemoglobin Test and the PSA Semiquant and SERATEC® BLOOD CS and SEMEN CS tests, respectively. Laboratory and crime scene tests presented similar performances for the detection of blood and semen stains on every tested fabric. No differences were found on band intensities between timepoints for all fabrics. It was possible to recover and identify blood and semen samples up to three months after deposition and to obtain full STR profiles from all the tested fabrics. Both body fluid STR profiles showed differences in their quality between 1 and 90 days after deposition for all fabrics except for black cotton for semen samples. Future research will expand the results, assessing body fluid identification on other substrates and under different environmental conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3522
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


  • STR profiles
  • blood
  • fabric
  • lateral flow immunochromatographic test
  • semen
  • time


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