Awareness of white privilege among white counseling trainees

Julie R. Ancis, Dawn M. Szymanski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


In this study, the written reactions of 34 White master's counseling students to a list developed by Peggy McIntosh describing her experience of White privilege were analyzed using qualitative methodology. Three general themes and corresponding subthemes were identified and revealed varied levels of awareness of White privilege. The three general themes represent increasing levels of awareness, from none, to demonstrated awareness but unwillingness to engage in proaction, to a more profound awareness of privilege and proactive efforts to eradicate privilege. Directions for future research and training are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)548-569
Number of pages22
JournalCounseling Psychologist
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology


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