Biobjective Task Scheduling for Distributed Green Data Centers

Haitao Yuan, Jing Bi, Mengchu Zhou, Qing Liu, Ahmed Chiheb Ammari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


The industry of data centers is the fifth largest energy consumer in the world. Distributed green data centers (DGDCs) consume 300 billion kWh per year to provide different types of heterogeneous services to global users. Users around the world bring revenue to DGDC providers according to actual quality of service (QoS) of their tasks. Their tasks are delivered to DGDCs through multiple Internet service providers (ISPs) with different bandwidth capacities and unit bandwidth price. In addition, prices of power grid, wind, and solar energy in different GDCs vary with their geographical locations. Therefore, it is highly challenging to schedule tasks among DGDCs in a high-profit and high-QoS way. This work designs a multiobjective optimization method for DGDCs to maximize the profit of DGDC providers and minimize the average task loss possibility of all applications by jointly determining the split of tasks among multiple ISPs and task service rates of each GDC. A problem is formulated and solved with a simulated-Annealing-based biobjective differential evolution (SBDE) algorithm to obtain an approximate Pareto-optimal set. The method of minimum Manhattan distance is adopted to select a knee solution that specifies the Pareto-optimal task service rates and task split among ISPs for DGDCs in each time slot. Real-life data-based experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves lower task loss of all applications and larger profit than several existing scheduling algorithms. Note to Practitioners-This work aims to maximize the profit and minimize the task loss for DGDCs powered by renewable energy and smart grid by jointly determining the split of tasks among multiple ISPs. Existing task scheduling algorithms fail to jointly consider and optimize the profit of DGDC providers and QoS of tasks. Therefore, they fail to intelligently schedule tasks of heterogeneous applications and allocate infrastructure resources within their response time bounds. In this work, a new method that tackles drawbacks of existing algorithms is proposed. It is achieved by adopting the proposed SBDE algorithm that solves a multiobjective optimization problem. Simulation experiments demonstrate that compared with three typical task scheduling approaches, it increases profit and decreases task loss. It can be readily and easily integrated and implemented in real-life industrial DGDCs. The future work needs to investigate the real-Time green energy prediction with historical data and further combine prediction and task scheduling together to achieve greener and even net-zero-energy data centers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8951255
Pages (from-to)731-742
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Cloud data centers
  • green computing
  • multiobjective differential evolution (DE)
  • quality of service (QoS)
  • simulated annealing (SA)
  • task scheduling


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