Cold Solar Flares. I. Microwave Domain

Alexandra L. Lysenko, Stephen M. White, Dmitry A. Zhdanov, Nataliia S. Meshalkina, Aleksander T. Altyntsev, Galina G. Motorina, Gregory D. Fleishman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We identify a set of ∼100 “cold” solar flares and perform a statistical analysis of them in the microwave range. Cold flares are characterized by a weak thermal response relative to nonthermal emission. This work is a follow-up of a previous statistical study of cold flares, which focused on hard X-ray emission to quantify the flare nonthermal component. Here, we focus on the microwave emission. The thermal response is evaluated by the soft X-ray emission measured by the GOES X-ray sensors. We obtain spectral parameters of the flare gyrosynchrotron emission and reveal patterns of their temporal evolution. The main results of the previous statistical study are confirmed: as compared to a “mean” flare, the cold flares have shorter durations, higher spectral peak frequencies, and harder spectral indices above the spectral peak. Nonetheless, there are some cold flares with moderate and low peak frequencies. In the majority of cold flares, we find evidence of the Razin effect in the microwave spectra, indicative of rather dense flaring loops. We discuss the results in the context of the electron acceleration efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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