Combinational image watermaking in the spatial and frequency domains

Frank Y. Shih, Scott Y.T. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Scopus citations


In order to provide more watermarks and to minimize the distortion of the watermarked image, a novel technique using the combinational spatial and frequency domains is presented in this paper. The splitting of the watermarkimage into two parts, respectively, for spatial and frequency insertion relies on the user's preference and data importance. Experimental results provide the comparisons when different sized watermarks are embedded into a grayscale image. The proposed combinational image watermarking possesses the following advantages. More watermark data can be inserted into the host image, so that the capacity is increased. The splitting of the watermarkinto two parts makes the degree of protection double. The splitting strategy can be designed even more complicated to be unable to compose. Furthermore, to enhance robustness, a random permutation of the watermarkis used to defeat the attacks of signal processing, such as image crops.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-975
Number of pages7
JournalPattern Recognition
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • Compression
  • Encryption
  • Image processing
  • Image watermaking
  • Security
  • Signal processing


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