The genus Synalpheus is a cosmopolitan clade of marine shrimps found in most tropical regions. Species in this genus exhibit a range of social organizations, including pair-forming, communal breeding, and eusociality, the latter only known to have evolved within this genus in the marine realm. This study examines the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Synalpheus and explores differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species considering that eusociality has been shown before to affect the strength of purifying selection in mitochondrial protein coding genes. The AT-rich mitochondrial genomes of Synalpheus range from 15,421 bp to 15,782 bp in length and comprise, invariably, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. A 648 bp to 994 bp long intergenic space is assumed to be the D-loop. Mitochondrial gene synteny is identical among the studied shrimps. No major differences occur between eusocial and non-eusocial species in nucleotide composition and codon usage profiles of PCGs and in the secondary structure of tRNA genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the complete concatenated PCG complement of 90 species supports the monophyly of the genus Synalpheus and its family Alpheidae. Moreover, the monophyletic status of the caridean families Alvinocaridae, Atyidae, Thoridae, Lysmatidae, Palaemonidae, and Pandalidae within caridean shrimps are fully or highly supported by the analysis. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial genomes contain sufficient phylogenetic information to resolve relationships at high taxonomic levels within the Caridea. Our analysis of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Synalpheus contributes to the understanding of the coevolution between genomic architecture and sociality in caridean shrimps and other marine organisms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social behavior