Contribution of household and personal care products to 1,4-dioxane contamination of drinking water

Anne Cooper Doherty, Cheng Shiuan Lee, Qingyu Meng, Yuko Sakano, Abigail E. Noble, Kelly A. Grant, Adrienne Esposito, Christopher J. Gobler, Arjun K. Venkatesan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Although 1,4-dioxane contamination of drinking water is primarily associated with historical disposal practices and unintended industrial releases, the abundant presence of 1,4-dioxane in personal care and cleaning products and subsequent releases to domestic wastewater serves as a constant source of contamination of water resources. Drinking water contamination of 1,4-dioxane from the use of consumer products is currently underappreciated, in many cases unrecognized, and, as a result, few efforts have been dedicated to understanding this ongoing issue. A few U.S. states, like New York and California, are proactively addressing this important issue by acknowledging the need to restrict 1,4-dioxane in consumer products. In this review we summarize the (i) occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in consumer products, (ii) pathways by which consumer products can contaminate drinking water, (iii) current policies surrounding 1,4-dioxane in consumer products, and (iv) future research needs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100414
JournalCurrent Opinion in Environmental Science and Health
StatePublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


  • 1,4-Dioxane
  • Consumer products
  • Exposures
  • Urban water cycle
  • Wastewater discharge


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