Contributions of reactor geometry and ultrasound frequency on the efficieny of sonochemical reactor

Jitendra A. Kewalramani, Bruno Bezerra de Souza, Richard W. Marsh, Jay N. Meegoda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


An intermediate-scale reactor with 10L capacity and two transducers operating at 700 and 950 kHz frequencies was developed to study the scalability of the sonolytic destruction of Per and Polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). The impact of frequency, height of liquid or power density, and transducer position on reactor performance was evaluated with the potassium iodide (KI) oxidation and calorimetric power. The dual frequency mode of operation has a synergistic effect based on the triiodide concentration, and calorimetric power. The triiodide concentration, and calorimetric power were higher in this mode compared to the combination of both frequencies operating individually. The sonochemical efficiency for an intermediate-scale reactor (10L) was similar that obtained from a bench-scale reactor (2L), showing the scalability of the sonolytic technology. The placement of the transducer at the bottom or side wall of the reactor had no significant impact on the sonochemical reactivity. The superposition of the ultrasonic field from the dual transducer mode (side and bottom) did not produce a synergistic effect compared to the single transducer mode (bottom or side). This can be attributed to a disturbance due to the interaction of ultrasonic fields of two frequencies from each transducer. With the encouraging results scaling up is in progress for site implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106529
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
StatePublished - Aug 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


  • Acoustic Cavitation
  • KI dosimetry and calorimetric power
  • PFAS
  • Power levels
  • Reactor geometry


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