Convergence insufficiency neuro-mechanism adult population study: phoria adaptation results

Ayushi Sangoi, Mitchell Scheiman, Chang Yaramothu, Elio M. Santos, Suril Gohel, Tara L. Alvarez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in phoria adaptation between young adult binocularly normal controls (BNCs) and participants with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI), who were randomized to either office-based vergence accommodative therapy (OBVAT) or office-based placebo therapy (OBPT). METHODS. In the double-masked randomized clinical trial, 50 BNC and 50 CI participants were randomized to the following therapeutic interventions: OBVAT or OBPT with home reinforcement for 12 one-hour office sessions. A 6 base-out and 6 base-in phoria adaptation experiment at near (40 cm) was conducted using the flashed Maddox rod technique at baseline and at outcome. Measurements included the rate and the magnitude of phoria adaptation. RESULTS. At baseline, BNC and CI participants had significantly different rates and magnitudes of base-in and base-out phoria adaptation (P < 0.001). When comparing the outcome to baseline measurements, significant main effect differences in longitudinal measurements were observed for the magnitude and the rate of phoria adaptation for both base-out and base-in experiments (P < 0.05). For the magnitude and rate of phoria adaptation, post hoc analyses using paired t-tests revealed that the CI group administered the OBVAT intervention exhibited a significant increase in the magnitude and rate of phoria adaptation compared to baseline for both base-in and base-out phoria adaptation (P < 0.01) but not for those administered OBPT. CONCLUSIONS. Phoria adaptation is significantly different at baseline between those with normal binocular vision and symptomatic CI participants. OBVAT significantly improves the rate and magnitude of both base-out and base-in phoria adaptation at near compared to OBPT. Results have clinical implications for new therapeutic interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number19
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - Aug 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


  • Convergence insufficiency (CI)
  • Office-based vergence and accommodative therapy (OBVAT)
  • Phoria adaptation
  • Vergence
  • Vision therapy


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