Corticostriatal causality analysis in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Fanyu Zhang, Yilu Li, Lin Liu, Yefen Liu, Pan Wang, Bharat B. Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Aim: The effective connectivity between the striatum and cerebral cortex has not been fully investigated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our objective was to explore the interaction effects between diagnosis and age on disrupted corticostriatal effective connectivity and to represent the modulation function of altered connectivity pathways in children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: We performed Granger causality analysis on 300 participants from a publicly available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-200 dataset. By computing the correlation coefficients between causal connections between striatal subregions and other cortical regions, we estimated the striatal inflow and outflow connection to represent intermodulation mechanisms in corticostriatal pathways. Results: Interactions between diagnosis and age were detected in the superior occipital gyrus within the visual network, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule within the default mode network, which is positively correlated with hyperactivity/impulsivity severity in ADHD. Main effect of diagnosis exhibited a general higher cortico-striatal causal connectivity involving default mode network, frontoparietal network and somatomotor network in ADHD compared with comparisons. Results from high-order effective connectivity exhibited a disrupted information pathway involving the default mode-striatum-somatomotor-striatum-frontoparietal networks in ADHD. Conclusion: The interactions detected in the visual-striatum-default mode networks pathway appears to be related to the potential distraction caused by long-term abnormal information input from the retina in ADHD. Higher causal connectivity and weakened intermodulation may indicate the pathophysiological process that distractions lead to the impairment of motion planning function and the inhibition/control of this unplanned motion signals in ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


  • age
  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • corticostriatal connectivity
  • Granger causality analysis
  • interaction effect


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