Cu(InGa)Se 2 thin films by elemental cp-evaporation/sputtering and large area module results

B. Sang, L. Chen, M. Akhtar, R. Govindarajan, A. E. Delahoy, J. Pankow

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We report process optimization and understanding resulting in high quality Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) films and high efficiency devices/modules using a hybrid process for CIGS formation. In the hybrid process, the Cu is supplied by magnetron sputtering, and the In, Ga, and Se are supplied by linear thermal sources. The advantages of the hybrid process include: i) the ease and precision of Cu thickness control; and ii) flexibility to adjust the Ga depth profile. The investigation was conducted in a large-area, pilot-line system. Among others, important parameters were found to be the Cu/(In+Ga) ratio of the Cu/(InGa) 2Se 3 precursor, selenization temperature, and timing of the Ga and In fluxes. Cell efficiencies of over 13.0% and module efficiencies of 7.5% (26W, 0.35 m 2) were achieved. The film properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, and AES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-218
Number of pages4
JournalConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes
Event31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - 2005 - Lake Buena Vista, FL, United States
Duration: Jan 3 2005Jan 7 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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