A new series of unsymmetrical diphenylaminofluorene-based chromophores with various strong π-electron acceptors were synthesized and fully characterized. The systematic alteration of the structural design facilitated the investigation of effects such as molecular symmetry and strength of electron-donating and/or -withdrawing termini have on optical nonlinearity. In order to determine the electronic and geometrical properties of the novel compounds, a thorough investigation was carried out by a combination of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemical calculations. Finally, on the basis of two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections, the general trend for π-electron accepting ability, i.e., ability to accept charge transfer from diphenylamine was: 2-pyran-4-ylidene malononitrile (pyranone) > dicyanovinyl > bis(dicyanomethylidene)indane >1-(thiophen-2-yl)propenone > dicyanoethylenyl >3-(thiophen-2-yl)propenone. An analogue with the 2-pyran-4-ylidene malononitrile acceptor group exhibited a nearly 3-fold enhancement of the 2PA cross section (1650 GM at 840 nm), relative to other members of the series.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry