Linguistic research and natural language processing employ large repositories of ordered trees. XML, a standard ordered tree model, and XPath, its associated language, are natural choices for linguistic data and queries. However, several important expressive features required for linguistic queries are missing or hard to express in XPath. In this paper, we motivate and illustrate these features with a variety of linguistic queries. Then we propose extensions to XPath to support linguistic queries, and design an efficient query engine based on a novel labeling scheme. Experiments demonstrate that our language is not only sufficiently expressive for linguistic trees but also efficient for practical usage.