Designing quantum-dot cellular automata counters with energy consumption analysis

Shaahin Angizi, Mohammad Hossein Moaiyeri, Shohreh Farrokhi, Keivan Navi, Nader Bagherzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) exhibits a new paradigm at nanoscale for possible substitution of conventional CMOS technology. Most of the research works in QCA domain have completely ignored the significance of energy consumption constraint in designing circuits. In this study a low complexity and energy-efficient QCA T flip-flip as well as high-performance single-layer synchronous counters are proposed. By cascading the proposed T flip-flop and a suitable level converter, a QCA-compatible structure for falling edge triggered T flip-flop is achieved. This circuit functions as the chief element for constructing synchronous counters. QCADesigner and QCAPro tools are used for evaluating the functionality and calculating dissipated energy of the circuits, respectively. Results indicate the superiority of the proposed circuits in terms of complexity, latency and energy consumption as compared to their state-of-the-art counterparts. The proposed T flip-flop demonstrates 18% leakage energy improvement besides the considerable value of 56% switching energy improvement in 0.5Ek tunneling energy level as compared to the best ones. It is worth mentioning that 41%, 44% and 45% optimizations in the number of cells in addition to 15%, 25% and 33% optimizations in the area are achieved for the proposed mod 4, mod 8 and mod 16 counters, respectively, in comparison with the best previous results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-520
Number of pages9
JournalMicroprocessors and Microsystems
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 29 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • Counter
  • Energy consumption
  • Memory
  • Nanoelectronics
  • Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA)


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