Development of a Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced FAS Bilayer Amphiphobic Coating for Biological Fluids

Sumona Paul, Lingfen Rao, Louis H. Stein, Arash Salemi, Somenath Mitra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This study reports the development of a novel amphiphobic coating. The coating is a bilayer arrangement, where carbon nanotubes (CNTs) form the underlayer and fluorinated alkyl-silane (FAS) forms the overlayer, resulting in the development of highly amphiphobic coatings suitable for a wide range of substrates. The effectiveness of these coatings is demonstrated through enhanced contact angles for water and artificial blood plasma fluid on glass, stainless steel, and porous PTFE. The coatings were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle (CA) measurements. The water contact angles achieved with the bilayer coating were 106 ± 2°, 116 ± 2°, and 141 ± 2° for glass, stainless steel, and PTFE, respectively, confirming the hydrophobic nature of the coating. Additionally, the coating displayed high repellency for blood plasma, exhibiting contact angles of 102 ± 2°, 112 ± 2°, and 134 ± 2° on coated glass, stainless steel, and PTFE surfaces, respectively. The presence of the CNT underlayer improved plasma contact angles by 29%, 21.7%, and 16.5% for the respective surfaces. The presence of the CNT layer improved surface roughness significantly, and the average roughness of the bilayer coating on glass, stainless steel, and PTFE was measured to be 488 nm, 301 nm, and 274 nm, respectively. Mechanistically, the CNT underlayer contributed to the surface roughness, while the FAS layer provided high amphiphobicity. The maximum effect was observed on modified glass, followed by stainless steel and PTFE surfaces. These findings highlight the promising potential of this coating method across diverse applications, particularly in the biomedical industry, where it can help mitigate complications associated with device–fluid interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3138
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


  • amphiphobic surface
  • biomedical devices
  • carbon nanotubes
  • fluoroalkyl silane
  • hydrophobicity
  • nanomaterial coatings


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