Differences in Disrupted Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Among Children, Adolescents, and Adults With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resting-State fMRI Study

Elijah Agoalikum, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Hang Yang, Pan Wang, Shruti Varshney, Bochao Niu, Bharat Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most widespread mental disorders and often persists from childhood to adulthood, and its symptoms vary with age. In this study, we aim to determine the disrupted dynamic functional network connectivity differences in adult, adolescent, and child ADHD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data consisting of 35 children (8.64 ± 0.81 years), 40 adolescents (14.11 ± 1.83 years), and 39 adults (31.59 ± 10.13 years). We hypothesized that functional connectivity is time-varying and that there are within- and between-network connectivity differences among the three age groups. Nine functional networks were identified using group ICA, and three FC-states were recognized based on their dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) pattern. Fraction of time, mean dwell time, transition probability, degree-in, and degree-out were calculated to measure the state dynamics. Higher-order networks including the DMN, SN, and FPN, and lower-order networks comprising the SMN, VN, SC, and AUD were frequently distributed across all states and were found to show connectivity differences among the three age groups. Our findings imply abnormal dynamic interactions and dysconnectivity associated with different ADHD, and these abnormalities differ between the three ADHD age groups. Given the dFNC differences between the three groups in the current study, our work further provides new insights into the mechanism subserved by age difference in the pathophysiology of ADHD and may set the grounds for future case-control studies in the individual age groups, as well as serving as a guide in the development of treatment strategies to target these specific networks in each age group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number697696
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
Volume15
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 5 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • brain connectivity
  • brain networks and dynamic connectivity
  • dynamic functional brain network
  • fMRI
  • resting state—fMRI

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