This study used large-scale time-varying network analysis to reveal the diverse network patterns during the different decision stages and found that the responses of rejection and acceptance involved different network structures. When participants accept unfair offers, the brain recruits a more bottom-up mechanism with a much stronger information flow from the visual cortex (O2) to the frontal area, but when they reject unfair offers, it displayed a more top-down flow derived from the frontal cortex (Fz) to the parietal and occipital cortices. Furthermore, we performed 2 additional studies to validate the above network models: one was to identify the 2 responses based on the out-degree information of network hub nodes, which results in 70% accuracy, and the other utilized theta burst stimulation (TBS) of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate the frontal area before the decision-making tasks. We found that the intermittent TBS group demonstrated lower acceptance rates and that the continuous TBS group showed higher acceptance rates compared with the sham group. Similar effects were not observed after TBS of a control site. These results suggest that the revealed decision-making network model can serve as a potential intervention model to alter decision responses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- brain networks
- the frontal cortex
- transcranial magnetic stimulation