Direct recycling for advancing sustainable battery solutions

Ta Wei Wang, Tengxiao Liu, Hongtao Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have undergone extensive production to meet the escalating demand for sustainable energy solutions in consumer electronics, renewable energy integration, and electric transportation. Nonetheless, the accumulation of spent LIBs at their end-of-life stage has raised concerns regarding their environmental impact and the sustainability of manufacturing processes. To address these issues, battery recycling has emerged as a promising solution, offering both environmental safeguarding and the advancements in manufacturing sustainability. In contrast to traditional recycling methods involving high-temperature smelting and acid-leaching, direct recycling has gained prominence due to its economic viability and environmental benefits. This comprehensive review focuses on the current landscape of the direct recycling methods applied to conventional LIBs. Furthermore, this review discusses advancements in the direct recycling methods tailored explicitly for all-solid-state batteries. The exploration extends to dry manufacturing approaches, which have shown potential in the realm of direct recycling. Finally, the review presents a forward-looking perspective to outline impending challenges and avenues for research to fully realize direct recycling for LIBs/all-solid-state batteries. This trajectory ensures a more sustainable and ecologically amicable approach to battery production and waste management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101434
JournalMaterials Today Energy
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


  • Cathodes
  • Dry electrode manufacturing
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Solid-state battery
  • Sustainability


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