Do Mixtures of Beads with Different Sizes Improve Wet Stirred Media Milling of Drug Suspensions?

Gulenay Guner, Mirsad Mehaj, Natasha Seetharaman, Sherif Elashri, Helen F. Yao, Donald J. Clancy, Ecevit Bilgili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The impacts of bead sizes and bead mixtures on breakage kinetics, the number of milling cycles applied to prevent overheating, and power consumption during the nanomilling of drug (griseofulvin) suspensions were investigated from both an experimental and theoretical perspective. Narrowly sized zirconia beads with nominal sizes of 100, 200, and 400 µm and their half-and-half binary mixtures were used at 3000 and 4000 rpm with two bead loadings of 0.35 and 0.50. Particle size evolution was measured during the 3 h milling experiments using laser diffraction. An nth-order breakage model was fitted to the experimental median particle size evolution, and various microhydrodynamic parameters were calculated. In general, the beads and their mixtures with smaller median sizes achieved faster breakage. While the microhydrodynamic model explained the impacts of process parameters, it was limited in describing bead mixtures. For additional test runs performed, the kinetics model augmented with a decision tree model using process parameters outperformed that augmented with an elastic-net regression model using the microhydrodynamic parameters. The evaluation of the process merit scores suggests that the use of bead mixtures did not lead to notable process improvement; 100 µm beads generally outperformed bead mixtures and coarser beads in terms of fast breakage, low power consumption and heat generation, and low intermittent milling cycles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2213
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


  • bead mixtures
  • breakage kinetics
  • drug nanoparticles
  • machine learning
  • microhydrodynamic model
  • wet stirred media milling


Dive into the research topics of 'Do Mixtures of Beads with Different Sizes Improve Wet Stirred Media Milling of Drug Suspensions?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this