Dual Wavelength Photoplethysmography Framework for Heart Rate Calculation

Ludvik Alkhoury, Ji Won Choi, Vishnu D. Chandran, Gabriela B. De Carvalho, Saikat Pal, Moshe Kam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The quality of heart rate (HR) measurements extracted from human photoplethysmography (PPG) signals are known to deteriorate under appreciable human motion. Auxiliary signals, such as accelerometer readings, are usually employed to detect and suppress motion artifacts. A 2019 study by Yifan Zhang and his coinvestigatorsused the noise components extracted from an infrared PPG signal to denoise a green PPG signal from which HR was extracted. Until now, this approach was only tested on “micro-motion” such as finger tapping. In this study, we extend this technique to allow accurate calculation of HR under high-intensity full-body repetitive “macro-motion”. Our Dual Wavelength (DWL) framework was tested on PPG data collected from 14 human participants while running on a treadmill. The DWL method showed the following attributes: (1) it performed well under high-intensity full-body repetitive “macro-motion”, exhibiting high accuracy in the presence of motion artifacts (as compared to the leading accelerometer-dependent HR calculation techniques TROIKA and JOSS); (2) it used only PPG signals; auxiliary signals such as accelerometer signals were not needed; and (3) it was computationally efficient, hence implementable in wearable devices. DWL yielded a Mean Absolute Error (Formula presented.) of 1.22|0.57 BPM, Mean Absolute Error Percentage (Formula presented.) of 0.95|0.38%, and performance index (Formula presented.) (which is the frequency, in percent, of obtaining an HR estimate that is within ±5 BPM of the HR ground truth) of 95.88|4.9%. Moreover, DWL yielded a short computation period of 3.0|0.3 s to process a 360-second-long run.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9955
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


  • dual-wavelength PPG
  • green and infrared PPG
  • heart rate calculation
  • motion artifacts reduction
  • photoplethysmography (PPG)


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