Effects of Emerging Bipolar Magnetic Regions in Mean-field Dynamo Model of Solar Cycles 23 and 24

V. V. Pipin, A. G. Kosovichev, V. E. Tomin

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3 Scopus citations


We model the physical parameters of Solar Cycles 23 and 24 using a nonlinear dynamical mean-field dynamo model that includes the formation and evolution of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). The Parker-type dynamo model consists of a complete MHD system in the mean-field formulation: the 3D magnetic induction equation, and 2D momentum and energy equations in the anelastic approximation. The initialization of BMRs is modeled in the framework of Parker’s magnetic buoyancy instability. It defines the depths of BMR injections, which are typically located at the edge of the global dynamo waves. The distribution with longitude and latitude and the size of the initial BMR perturbations are taken from the NOAA database of active regions. The modeling results are compared with various observed characteristics of the solar cycles. Only the BMR perturbations located in the upper half of the convection zone lead to magnetic active regions on the solar surface. While the BMRs initialized in the lower part of the convection zone do not emerge on the surface, they still affect the global dynamo process. Our results show that BMRs can play a substantial role in the dynamo processes and affect the strength of the solar cycles. However, the data driven model shows that the BMR’s effect alone cannot explain the weak Cycle 24. This weak cycle and the prolonged preceding minimum of magnetic activity were probably caused by a decrease of the turbulent helicity in the bulk of the convection zone during the decaying phase of Cycle 23.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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