Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission

Shaoquan Wu, Jiwu Huang, Daren Huang, Yun Q. Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

229 Scopus citations


In this paper, we propose a self-synchronization algorithm for audio watermarking to facilitate assured audio data transmission. The synchronization codes are embedded into audio with the informative data, thus the embedded data have the self-synchronization ability. To achieve robustness, we embed the synchronization codes and the hidden informative data into the low frequency coefficients in DWT (discrete wavelet transform) domain. By exploiting the time-frequency localization characteristics of DWT, the computational load in searching synchronization codes has been dramatically reduced, thus resolving the contending requirements between robustness of hidden data and efficiency of synchronization codes searching. The performance of the proposed scheme in terms of SNR (signal to noise ratio) and BER (bit error rate) is analyzed. An estimation formula that connects SNR with embedding strength has been provided to ensure the transparency of embedded data. BER under Gaussian noise corruption has been estimated to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. The experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the embedded data are robust against most common signal processing and attacks, such as Gaussian noise corruption, resampling, requantization, cropping, and MP3 compression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-76
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Media Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Audio data transmission
  • Audio watermarking
  • Cropping
  • Robustness
  • Self-synchronization
  • Wavelet


Dive into the research topics of 'Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this