Embedding image watermarks in DC components

Jiwu Huang, Yun Q. Shi, Yi Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

259 Scopus citations


Both watermark structure and embedding strategy affect robustness of image watermarks. Where should watermarks be embedded in discrete cosing transform (DCT) domain in order for the invisible image watermarks to be robust? Though many papers in the literature agree that watermarks should be embedded in perceptually significant components, dc components are explicitly excluded from watermark embedding. In this letter, a new embedding strategy for watermarking is proposed based on a quantitative analysis on the magnitudes of DCT components of host images. We argue that more robustness can be achieved if watermarks are embedded in dc components since dc components have much larger perceptual capacity than any ac components. Based on this idea, an adaptive watermarking algorithm is presented. We incorporate the feature of texture masking and luminance masking of the human visual system into watermarking. Experimental results demonstrate that the invisible watermarks embedded with the proposed watermark algorithm are very robust.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)974-979
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Media Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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