Enhancement of image watermark retrieval based on genetic algorithms

Frank Y. Shih, Yi Ta Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


A watermark hidden in an image is retrieved differently from the original watermark due to the frequently used rounding approach. The simple rounding will cause numerous errors in the embedded watermark especially when it is large. A novel technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) is presented in this paper to correct the rounding errors. The fundamental is to adopt a fitness function for choosing the best chromosome which determines the conversion rule of real numbers into integers during the cosine transformation. Experimental results show that the dramatic improvement in reducing the errors is successful when GAs are used in decision making. Furthermore, we develop an initial chromosome by comparing the difference between the original image and the rounded watermarked image to speed up the process. In additional to correct fragile-watermarking rounding errors, our algorithm can also be applied in robust watermarking to achieve higher watermarked image quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-133
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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