Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered as the first human tumor virus more than 50 years ago. EBV infects more than 90% of the human population worldwide and is associated with numerous hematologic malignancies and epithelial malignancies. EBV establishes latent infection in B cells, which is the typical program seen in lymphomagenesis. Understanding EBV-mediated transcription regulatory networks is one of the current challenges that will uncover new insights into the mechanism of viral-mediated lymphomagenesis. Here, we describe the regulatory profiles of several cellular factors (E2F6, E2F1, Rb, HDAC1, and HDAC2) together with EBV latent nuclear antigens using next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Our results show that the E2F-Rb-HDAC complex exhibits similar distributions in genomic regions of EBV-positive cells and is associated with oncogenic super-enhancers involving long-range regulatory regions. Furthermore, EBV latent antigens cooperatively hijack this complex to bind at KLFs gene loci and facilitate KLF14 gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These results demonstrate that EBV latent antigens can function as master regulators of this multisubunit repressor complex (E2F-RbHDAC) to reverse its suppressive activities and facilitate downstream gene expression that can contribute to viral-induced lymphomagenesis. These results provide novel insights into targets for the development of new therapeutic interventions for treating EBV-associated lymphomas. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as the first human tumor virus, infects more than 90% of the human population worldwide and is associated with numerous human cancers. Exploring EBV-mediated transcription regulatory networks is critical to understand viral-associated lymphomagenesis. However, the detailed mechanism is not fully explored. Now we describe the regulatory profiles of the E2F-Rb-HDAC complex together with EBV latent antigens, and we found that EBV latent antigens cooperatively facilitate KLF14 expression by antagonizing this multisubunit repressor complex in EBV-positive cells. This provides potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Latent infection