We study how a suspended liquid film is deformed by an external flow en route to forming a bubble through experiments and a model. We identify a family of nonminimal but stable equilibrium shapes for flow speeds up to a critical value beyond which the film inflates unstably, and the model accounts for the observed nonlinear deformations and forces. A saddle-node or fold bifurcation in the solution diagram suggests that bubble formation at high speeds results from the loss of equilibrium and at low speeds from the loss of stability for overly inflated shapes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)