Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are massive solar eruptions, which have a significant impact on Earth. In this paper, we propose a new method, called DeepCME, to estimate two properties of CMEs, namely, CME mass and kinetic energy. Being able to estimate these properties helps better understand CME dynamics. Our study is based on the CME catalog maintained at the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops Data Center, which contains all CMEs manually identified since 1996 using the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We use LASCO C2 data in the period between 1996 January and 2020 December to train, validate, and test DeepCME through 10-fold cross validation. The DeepCME method is a fusion of three deep-learning models, namely ResNet, InceptionNet, and InceptionResNet. Our fusion model extracts features from LASCO C2 images, effectively combining the learning capabilities of the three component models to jointly estimate the mass and kinetic energy of CMEs. Experimental results show that the fusion model yields a mean relative error (MRE) of 0.013 (0.009, respectively) compared to the MRE of 0.019 (0.017, respectively) of the best component model InceptionResNet (InceptionNet, respectively) in estimating the CME mass (kinetic energy, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first time that deep learning has been used for CME mass and kinetic energy estimations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science