Estimation of sex based on postcranial elements in European American and Latin American populations

Sara C. Zapico, Joe Adserias-Garriga

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5 Scopus citations


This study assesses the use of postcranial elements for sex estimation taking population variability into account. European American and Latin American populations are independently analyzed. Nine measurements from postcranial elements were collected from 72 European American individuals, and 59 Latin American individuals. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 15. Statistical analyses were conducted to corroborate that there were no intra- or interobserver errors. In both populations, significant differences were found on all measured traits between males and females, except Scapular Breadth in Latin Americans. According to Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) in the European American population the Ulna Minimum Breadth of the Olecranon (UMBO) correctly classified 91.3% of individuals. When this parameter was combined with the Diameter of Humeral Head (HHD), the two correctly classified 98% of individuals. In Latin Americans, the UMBO correctly classified 82.4% of the individuals. When combined with HHD, the measurements correctly classified 79.4% individuals. UMBO is the most useful trait to correctly assign the sex of the remains in both populations. Including the HHD improved accuracy rates in the European American sample. These results are in agreement with previous studies, which named the humerus as one of the potentially useful bones to consider for sex estimation based on its accuracy. Thus, these two anatomical regions could be used alone or in combination with other methodologies for sex estimation, which is particularly important in situations of fragmentary remains and incomplete skeletons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102098
JournalJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law


  • European American population
  • Humerus
  • Latin American population
  • Sex
  • Ulna


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