The development of efficient methods for facilitating N-C(O) bond activation in amides is an important objective in organic synthesis that permits the manipulation of the traditionally unreactive amide bonds. Herein, we report a comparative evaluation of a series of cyclic amides as activating groups in amide N-C(O) bond cross-coupling. Evaluation of N-acyl-imides, N-acyl-lactams, and N-acyl-oxazolidinones bearing five- and six-membered rings using Pd(II)-NHC and Pd-phosphine systems reveals the relative reactivity order of N-activating groups in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. The reactivity of activated phenolic esters and thioesters is evaluated for comparison in O-C(O) and S-C(O) cross-coupling under the same reaction conditions. Most notably, the study reveals N-acyl-δ-valerolactams as a highly effective class of mono-N-acyl-activated amide precursors in cross-coupling. The X-ray structure of the model N-acyl-δ-valerolactam is characterized by an additive Winkler-Dunitz distortion parameter ς(τ+χN) of 54.0°, placing this amide in a medium distortion range of twisted amides. Computational studies provide insight into the structural and energetic parameters of the amide bond, including amidic resonance, N/O-protonation aptitude, and the rotational barrier around the N-C(O) axis. This class of N-acyl-lactams will be a valuable addition to the growing portfolio of amide electrophiles for cross-coupling reactions by acyl-metal intermediates.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry