Evaluation of manual traffic-signal control under oversaturated conditions using hardware-in-the-loop simulation

Jaehyun So, Joyoung Lee, Byungkyu Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of manual traffic-signal control by comparing its performance with two optimized traffic-signal controls during oversaturated conditions. To simulate manual traffic-signal control, the VisSim-based hardware-in-theloop simulation (HILS), which provides similar manual controls at a field traffic-signal, was implemented. Whereas the normal-day traffic signal-timing plan was obtained from the city of Charlottesville, optimized signal-timing plans were obtained from Synchro. The results obtained from the VisSim-based simulation indicate that benefits can be achieved by utilizing manual traffic-signal control and optimized signal-controls relative to normal-day traffic-signal control during oversaturated conditions. In particular, manual traffic-signal control reduced delays to a greater extent than the two optimized signal-timing plans. Although the reduction in delays achieved by the manual signal-controls was not statistically significant when compared with the performance of the two optimized signal-controls, the results of the third and fourth manual signal-control attempts by the same operators reflecting the performance of trained manual controls showed statistically significant improvements in reducing delays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1068-1075
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Transportation Engineering
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


  • 170-E ATC traffic signal controller
  • Hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS)
  • Manual traffic signal control
  • Optimized traffic signal control


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